Selected Publications

The following represents a thorough (but non-exhaustive) list of research material in the exergy economics field. To suggest amendments, please email

Ayres, R. U. (1998). “Eco-thermodynamics: economics and the second law.” Ecological Economics 26(2): 189-209.

Ayres, R. U., et al. (2003). “Exergy, power and work in the US economy, 1900–1998.” Energy 28(3): 219-273.

Ayres, R. U., et al. (2007). “Energy efficiency, sustainability and economic growth.” Energy 32(5): 634-648.

Ayres, R. U., et al. (2013). “The underestimated contribution of energy to economic growth.” Structural Change and Economic Dynamics 27: 79-88.

Ayres, R. U. and J. C. J. M. van den Bergh (2005). “A theory of economic growth with material/energy resources and dematerialization: Interaction of three growth mechanisms.” Ecological Economics 55: 96-118.

Ayres, R. U. and V. Voudouris (2014). “The economic growth enigma: Capital, labour and useful energy?” Energy Policy 64: 16-28.

Ayres, R. U. and B. Warr (2005). “Accounting for growth: the role of physical work.” Structural Change and Economic Dynamics 16: 181-209.

Brockway, P. E., et al. (2014). “Divergence of trends in US and UK Aggregate Exergy Efficiencies 1960-2010”. Environmental Science & Technology 48(16): 9874-9881.

Brockway, P. E., et al. (2015). “Understanding China’s past and future energy demand: An energy efficiency and decomposition analysis”. Applied Energy 155: 892-903.

Cullen, J. M. and J. M. Allwood (2010). “The efficient use of energy: Tracing the global flow of energy from fuel to service”. Energy Policy 38(1): 75-81.

Cullen, J. M. and J. M. Allwood (2010). “Theoretical efficiency limits for energy conversion devices.” Energy 35(5): 2059-2069.

De Stercke, S. (2014). Dynamics of Energy Systems: a Useful Perspective. IIASA Interim Report IR-14-013. Laxenberg, Austria, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis.

Guevara, Z., et al. (2014). “An approach for a better evaluation of energy efficiency trends using Index Decomposition Analysis and Useful Work Accounting.” Energy Economics (submitted).

Hammond, G. P. and A. J. Stapleton (2001). “Exergy analysis of the United Kingdom energy system.” Journal of Power and Energy 215(2): 141-162.

Nakićenović, N., et al. (1996). “Regional and global exergy and energy efficiencies.” Energy 21(3): 223-237.

Palma, M. M. (2014). Evolution of Aggregated Exergy Efficiencies per end-use in the period 1960-2009 (pdf). MSc Thesis, Universidade De Lisboa Instituto Superior Técnico.

Santos, J., et al. (2014). “Energy measures and economic growth: cointegration and causality relationships for Portugal (1960-2009).” Energy (submitted).

Serrenho, A. (2013). Useful Work as an End-Use Accounting Method. PhD Thesis, Universidade De Lisboa Instituto Superior Técnico.

Serrenho, A. C., et al. (2014). “Decomposition of useful work intensity: The EU (European Union)-15 countries from 1960 to 2009.” Energy 76: 704-715.

Serrenho, A. C., et al. (2014). “Structure and dynamics of useful work along the agriculture-industry-services transition: Portugal from 1856 to 2009.” Structural Change and Economic Dynamics: 1-21.

Sousa, T., et al. (2015). “Bringing consistency into societal useful exergy studies.” Energy (submitted).

Utlu, Z. and A. Hepbasli (2007). “A review on analyzing and evaluating the energy utilization efficiency of countries.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 11(1): 1-29.

Warr, B., et al. (2010). “Energy use and economic development: A comparative analysis of useful work supply in Austria, Japan, the United Kingdom and the US during 100 years of economic growth.” Ecological Economics 69(10): 1904-1917.

Warr, B. and R. U. Ayres (2012). “Useful work and information as drivers of economic growth.” Ecological Economics 73: 93-102.

Warr, B., et al. (2008). “Long term trends in resource exergy consumption and useful work supplies in the UK, 1900 to 2000.” Ecological Economics 68: 126-140.

Warr, B. S. and R. U. Ayres (2010). “Evidence of causality between the quantity and quality of energy consumption and economic growth.” Energy 35(4): 1688-1693.

Williams, E., et al. (2008). “Efficiency Dilution: Long-Term Exergy Conversion Trends in Japan.” Environmental Science and Technology 42(4964-4970).