Selected Publications


The following represents a thorough (but non-exhaustive) list of research material in the exergy economics field. To suggest amendments, please email 


Brand-Correa, L.I., Brockway, P., Copeland, C., Foxon, T., Owen, A., and Taylor, P., 2017. Developing an Input-Output Based Method to Estimate a National-Level Energy Return on Investment (EROI). Energies 2017, 10, 534.

Brand-Correa, L.I. and Steinberger, J.K. 2017. A Framework for Decoupling Human Need Satisfaction From Energy Use. Ecological Economics 2017. 141, 43-52.

Brockway, P.E., Saunders, H., Heun, M.K., Foxon, T.J., Steinberger, J.K., Barrett, J.R. and Sorrell, S. 2017. Energy Rebound as a Potential Threat to a Low-Carbon Future: Findings from a New Exergy-Based National-Level Rebound Approach. Energies. 10(51), 1-24.

Brockway PE, Heun MK, Santos J, and Barrett JR., 2017 Energy-Extended CES Aggregate Production: Current Aspects of Their Specification and Econometric Estimation. Energies 2017, 10(2), 202.

Guevara, Z., and Domingos, T. 2017. Three-level decoupling of energy use in Portugal 1995–2010. Energy Policy, 108, 134-142.

Guevara, Z., and Domingos, T. 2017. The multi-factor energy input–output model. Energy Economics, 61, 261-269.

Heun MK, Santos J, Brockway PE, Pruim R, and Domingos T. 2017. From Theory to Econometrics to Energy Policy: Cautionary Tales for Policymaking Using Aggregate Production Functions. Energies 2017, 10, 203.

Owen A; Brockway P; Brand-Correa L; Bunse L; Sakai M; and Barrett J. 2017. Energy consumption-based accounts: A comparison of results using different energy extension vectors, Applied Energy, 190, pp.464-473.

Rocco, M.V., Di Lucchio, and A. Colombo, E. 2017. Exergy Life Cycle Assessment of electricity production from Waste-to-Energy technology: A Hybrid Input-Output approach. 194, 832-844.

Sousa, T., Brockway, P.E., Cullen, J.M., Henriques, S.T., Miller, J., Serrenho, A.C., and Domingos, T. 2017. The Need for Robust, Consistent Methods in Societal Exergy Accounting. Ecological Economics 141, 11–21.

Whiting, K., Carmona, L. G., and Sousa, T. 2017. A review of the use of exergy to evaluate the sustainability of fossil fuels and non-fuel mineral depletion. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 76, 202-211.


Brockway, P.E.,  Dewulf, J., Kjelstrup, S., Siebentriit S, Valero A, Whelan C. 2016. In a Resource-Constrained World: Think Exergy not Energy. Report D/2016/13324/5 published by Science Europe, Brussels. 2016.

Eisenmenger, N., Warr, B. and Magerl, A. 2016. Trends in Austrian Resource Efficiency: An Exergy and Useful Work Analysis in Comparison to Material Use, CO2 Emissions, and Land Use. Journal of Industrial Ecology.

Guevara, Z., Sousa, T., and Domingos, T. 2016. Insights on Energy Transitions in Mexico from the Analysis of Useful Exergy 1971–2009. Energies, 9(7), 488.

Miller, J., T. Foxon., and S. Sorrell. 2016. Exergy Accounting: A Quantitative Comparison of Methods and Implications for Energy-Economy Analysis, Energies, 9(11).

Palma, M., Sousa, T., and Guevara, Z. 2016. How Much Detail Should We Use to Compute Societal Aggregated Exergy Efficiencies?. Energies, 9(5), 364.

Santos, J., Domingos, T., Sousa, T., and St Aubyn, M. 2016. Does a small cost share reflect a negligible role for energy in economic production? Testing for aggregate production functions including capital, labor, and useful exergy through a cointegration-based method. Munich Personal RePEc Archive, Paper Paper No. 70850.

Serrenho, A. C., Warr, B., Sousa, T., Ayres, R. U., and Domingos, T. 2016. Structure and dynamics of useful work along the agriculture-industry-services transition: Portugal from 1856 to 2009. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 36, 1-21.

Rocco, M.T. 2016. Accounting for Energy-Resources use by thermodynamics. Primary Energy Cost of Goods and Services. 43-60.


Brockway, P. E., Steinberger JK, Barrett JR, Foxon TJ. 2015. “Understanding China’s past and future energy demand: An energy efficiency and decomposition analysis”. Applied Energy 155: 892-903.

Byers, E.A., Gasparatos, A., and Serrenho, A.C. 2015. A framework for the exergy analysis of future transport pathways: Application for the United Kingdom transport system 2010–2050. Energy, 2015, 88: pp. 849-862.

Heun, M.K., Carbajales-Dale, and M. Haney, B.R. 2015. Beyond GDP – National Accounting in the Age of Resource Depletion.

Sousa, T., et al. 2015. “Improving the robustness of societal exergy accounting: from primary energy to energy services”, Proceedings of the 11th International Conference of the European Society for Ecological Economics at the University of Leeds.

Voudouris, V., Ayers, R., Serrenho, A.C., and Kiose, D.  2015. The economic growth enigma revisited: The EU-15 since the 1970s. Energy Policy, 2015, 86: pp. 812-832.


Ayres, R. U., and V. Voudouris 2014. “The economic growth enigma: Capital, labour and useful energy?” Energy Policy 64: 16-28.

Brockway, P. E., et al. 2014. “Divergence of trends in US and UK Aggregate Exergy Efficiencies 1960-2010”. Environmental Science & Technology 48(16): 9874-9881.

De Stercke, S. 2014. Dynamics of Energy Systems: a Useful Perspective. IIASA Interim Report IR-14-013. Laxenberg, Austria, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis.

Guevara Z, Sousa T, Domingos T. 2014. An approach for a better evaluation of energy efficiency trends using index decomposition analysis and useful work accounting. Energy Econ 2014.

Rocco, M.V. Columbo, E. and Sciubba, E. 2014. Advances in exergy analysis: a novel assessment of the Extended Exergy Accounting method. 113, pp. 1405-1420.

Santos J, Domingos T, Sousa T, Aubyn MS. 2014. Useful work & economic growth: Portugal, 1960-2009. University of Minho School of Economics and Management working paper.

Serrenho, A. C., et al. 2014. “Decomposition of useful work intensity: The EU (European Union)-15 countries from 1960 to 2009.” Energy 76: 704-715.

Serrenho AGCH. 2014. Useful Work as an Energy End-Use Accounting Method: Historical and Economic Transitions and European Patterns. PhD Thesis, Universidade de Lisboa. 2014.


Ayres, R. U., et al. 2013. “The underestimated contribution of energy to economic growth.” Structural Change and Economic Dynamics 27: 79-88.

Rosen MA. 2013. Assessing global resource utilization efficiency in the industrial sector. Sci Total Environ. Elsevier B.V.; 2013 Dec 10;461–462:804–7.

Santos, J., Domingos, T., Sousa, T., Serrenho, A. 2013. National Accounts with a Broader Energy Sector. University of Lisbon, Lisbon.

Serrenho, A. 2013. Useful Work as an End-Use Accounting Method. PhD Thesis, Universidade De Lisboa Instituto Superior Técnico.


Heun, M.K. and de Wit, M. 2012. Energy return on (energy) invested (EROI), oil prices, and energy transitions. 40, pp.147-158.

Ma L, Allwood JM, Cullen JM, Li Z. 2012. The use of energy in China : Tracing the flow of energy from primary source to demand drivers. Energy. Elsevier Ltd; 2012;40(1):174–88.

Warr, B. and R. U. Ayres 2012. “Useful work and information as drivers of economic growth.” Ecological Economics 73: 93-102.

Warr,B. and R.U. Ayres. 2012. Evidence of causality between the quantity and quality of energy consumption and economic growth. Energy, 35, 1688-1693.


Ayres RU, Talens Peiró L, Villalba Méndez G. 2011. Exergy efficiency in industry: where do we stand? Environmental science & technology. 2011 Dec 15;45(24):10634–41.

Cullen, J. M. et al. 2011. Reducing energy demand: What are the practical limits? Environmental Science and Technology. [Online] 45 (4), 1711–1718.

Koroneos CJ, Nanaki E a., Xydis G. 2011. Exergy analysis of the energy use in Greece. Energy Policy. Elsevier; 2011 May;39(5):2475–81.


Ayres, R. U. and Warr, B. 2010. The economic growth engine: how energy and work drive material prosperity, Edward Elgar Publishing.

Brown, M.T. and Ulgiati, S. 2010. Updated evaluation of exergy and emergy driving the geobiosphere: A review and refinement of the emergy baseline. 221(20), pp2501-2508.

Cullen, J. M. and J. M. Allwood 2010. “The efficient use of energy: Tracing the global flow of energy from fuel to service”. Energy Policy 38(1): 75-81.

Cullen, J. M. and J. M. Allwood 2010. “Theoretical efficiency limits for energy conversion devices.” Energy 35(5): 2059-2069.

Kümmel R, Ayres RU, Lindenberger D. 2010. Thermodynamic laws, economic methods and the productive power of energy. Journal of Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics. 2010 Jan;35(2):1–26.

Warr, B., et al. 2010. Energy use and economic development: A comparative analysis of useful work supply in Austria, Japan, the United Kingdom and the US during 100 years of economic growth.” Ecological Economics 69(10): 1904-1917.

Warr, B. S. and R. U. Ayres 2010. “Evidence of causality between the quantity and quality of energy consumption and economic growth.” Energy 35(4): 1688-1693.


Ayres .R.U., and B. Warr. 2009. The Economic Growth Engine: How energy and work create material prosperity. Edward Elgar.

Warr, B., Eisenmenger, N., Krausmann, F. and R.U. Ayres. 2009. “Austrian energy use and economic development during industrialization in the 20th Century: Exergy inputs, useful work outputs and modelling of economic growth”, IFF Social Ecology Working Paper No. 115. IFF/Social Ecology, Vienna.

Williams ED. Framework for thermodynamic constraints on sustainability. 2009. IEEE International Symposium on Sustainable Systems and Technology. IEEE; 2009. p. 1–5.


Ayres R. and B. Warr, 2008. Energy Efficiency and Economic Growth: The ‘Rebound Effect’ as a Driver. In: Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Consumption: The Rebound Effect. Horace Herring and Steve Sorrell (Eds.). Palgrave.

Stresing R, Lindenberger D, Kümmel R. 2008. Cointegration of output, capital, labor, and energy. The European Physical Journal B. 2008 Nov 14;66:279–87.

Warr, B., et al. 2008. “Long term trends in resource exergy consumption and useful work supplies in the UK, 1900 to 2000.” Ecological Economics 68: 126-140.

Warr, B, Williams, E. and R.U. Ayres. 2008. Accounting for economic growth in 20th Century Japan: From hindsight to foresight. INSEAD Working Paper.

Williams, E., et al. 2008. “Efficiency Dilution: Long-Term Exergy Conversion Trends in Japan.” Environmental Science and Technology 42(4964-4970).


Ayres, R. U., et al. 2007. “Energy efficiency, sustainability and economic growth.” Energy 32(5): 634-648.

Hammond GP. 2007. Industrial energy analysis, thermodynamics and sustainability. Applied Energy. 2007 Jul;84:675–700.

Oladiran, M.T and Meyer, J.P. 2007. Energy and exergy analyses of energy consumptions in the industrial sector in South Africa. Applied Energy. 84(10) 1056-1067.

Warr, B., Schandl, H., and R.U.Ayres. 2007. Long Term Trends in Resource Exergy Consumption and Useful Work Supplies in the UK, 1900-2000. Socio-Economics and the Environment in Discussion (SEED), Working Paper Series 2007-08, CSIRO sustainable Ecosystems.

Warr, B. and N. Eisenmenger. 2007. Forecasting future economic growth under alternative energy efficiency and energy intensity scenarios. 4th International Conference of the International Society for Industrial Ecology, ISIE, June 17-20, 2007. University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Winter, C-J. 2007. Energy efficiency, no: It’s exergy efficiency! International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 31(17), pp.4109-4111.

Utlu, Z. and A. Hepbasli. 2007. “A review on analyzing and evaluating the energy utilization efficiency of countries”. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 11(1): 1-29.


Warr, B. and R.U. Ayres. 2006. REXS: An Economic Forecasting Model for Assessing the Impact of natural resource consumption and technological change on economic growth.


Ayres, R. U. and J. C. J. M. van den Bergh 2005. “A theory of economic growth with material/energy resources and dematerialization: Interaction of three growth mechanisms.” Ecological Economics 55: 96-118.

Ayres, R. U. and B. Warr. 2005. “Accounting for growth: the role of physical work.” Structural Change and Economic Dynamics 16: 181-209.

Ayres RU, Ayres LW, Pokrovsky V. 2004. On the efficiency of US electricity usage since 1900. Energy. 2005 Jun;30(7):1092–145.

Ertesvag IS. 2004. Energy , exergy , and extended-exergy analysis of the Norwegian society 2000. Energy. 2005;30:649–75.


Ayres, R.U., Ayres, L.W. and B. Warr. 2004. Is the US Economy Dematerializing ? Main Indicators and Drivers. In: Jeroen C.J.M. van den Berg (Eds.) Economics of Industrial Ecology: Materials, Structural Change and Spatial Scales.

Hammond GP. 2004. Towards sustainability: energy efficiency, thermodynamic analysis, and the “two cultures.” Energy Policy. 2004 Nov;32(16):1789–98.


Ayres, R. U., et al. 2003. “Exergy, power and work in the US economy, 1900–1998.” Energy 28(3): 219-273.

Warr, B and R.U. Ayres. 2003. An introduction to REXS, a system dynamics model of long-run endogenous technological progress, resource consumption and economic growth. INSEAD Working Paper 2003/EPS/CMER.

Ayres, R. U. and B. Warr. 2003. Useful work and information as drivers of growth. Fontainebleau, France, INSEAD Working Paper 2002/121/EPS/CMER.


Ayres, R.U. and B. Warr. 2002. Economic growth models and the role of physical resources. In: P. Bartelmus (Ed.) Unveiling Wealth: On Money, quality of life and sustainability. Kluwer Academic.

Dincer I. 2002. The role of exergy in energy policy making. Energy Policy. 2002;30(May 2000):137–49.

Kümmel R, Henn J, Lindenberger D. 2002. Capital, labor, energy and creativity: modeling innovation diffusion. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics. 2002;13:415–33.


Ertsevåg, 2001. Society Exergy Analysis: A comparison of different societies. 26(3), pp.253-270.

Hammond, G. P. and A. J. Stapleton 2001. Exergy analysis of the United Kingdom energy system.” Journal of Power and Energy 215(2): 141-162.

1975 – 2000

Ertsevåg, 2000. Exergy Analysis of the Norwegian Society. Energy 25(10), pp.957-973.

Ayres RU. 1999. The second law , the fourth law , recycling and limits to growth. Ecological Economics. 1999;29:473–83.

Ayres, R. U. 1998. “Eco-thermodynamics: economics and the second law.” Ecological Economics 26(2): 189-209.

Ayres RU, Ayres LW, Martina K. 1998. Exergy, Waste accounting and life-cycle analysis. Energy. 1998;23(5):355–63.

Ileri, A., Gurer, T., 1998. Energy and exergy utilization in Turkey during 1995. Energy 23, 1099-1106.

Nakićenović, N., et al. 1996. “Regional and global exergy and energy efficiencies.” Energy 21(3): 223-237.

Wall, 1994. Exergy Use in the Italian Society. Energy 19(12), pp.1267-1274.

Rosen, M.A., 1992. Evaluation of energy utilization efficiency in Canada using energy and exergy analyses. Energy—The International Journal 1992: 17, 339–350.

Schaeffer R, Wirtshafter RM. 1992. An exergy analysis of the Brazilian economy: from energy production to final energy use. Energy. 1992;17(9):841–55.

Wall G. 1990. Exergy conversion in the Japanese society. Energy. 1990;15(5):435–44.

Kümmel R. 1989. Energy as a factor of production and entropy as a pollution indicator in macroeconomic modelling. Ecological Economics. 1989 May;1(2):161–80.

Wall G. 1987. Exergy conversion in the swedish society. Resources and energy. 1987;9:55–73.

Wall G. 1986. Exergy – A useful concept. PhD Thesis, Chalmers University of Technology and University of Göteborg. 1986. Available from:

Kümmel R, Strassl W, Gosner A, Eichhorn W. 1985. Technical Progress and Energy Dependent Production Functions. Zeltschrift fur Nationalokonomie Journal of Economics. 1985;45(3):285–311.

Kümmel R. 1982. The impact of energy on industrial growth. Energy. 1982;7(2):189–203.

Wall G. 1977. Exergy—A Useful Concept within Resource Accounting, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Göteborg. Report No. 77-42.

Reistad G. 1975. Available Energy Conversion and Utilization in the United States. ASME Transactions Series Journal of Engineering Power. 1975;97:429–34.